The Objective of this study was to conduct a comparative analysis of manufacturing technologies in gold and silver smithing form the orientalizing period -7th Century BC- to the Roman Period -1st Century BC- in the Mediterranean region


The Project considered the following Chronological System:

  • Orientalizing & Archaic period: 700 BC - 480 BC.
  • Classical period: 480BC - 323BC.
  • Hellenistic period: 323BC - 30BC.
  • Roman period: 30BC - 324AD

In Jordan the Following System is used:

  • Iron II: 1000BC - 539BC.
  • Persian Period: 539BC - 332BC.
  • Hellenistic period: 332BC - 63BC.
  • Roman period: 63BC - 324AD

The pieces studied came from The following museums:

  • Petra Archaeological Museum
  • Jordan Archaeological Museum
  • Jerash Archaeological Museum
  • Irbid Archaeological Museum

A typical example is the most elaborate earring in the Tawilan Hoard (near Petra) , it has additional decoration and is more complex in construction, the granules decorated the lower part of the tapered wire, triangular granules decorate the coiled wire and the top of the cylinder, and a cylinder made of rods of granules with no back sheet. (Petra Archaeological Museum):

Another example: gold scorpion amulet , the scorpion body engraved with a chisel, and flat grooved plate ring soldered to the back of the scorpion. Petra Tomb 813, dated to the 1st century AD, (Jordan Archaeological Museum)